1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the history and development of University Libraries or academic libraries in Nigeria, the problem of budgeting has removed on intractable phenomenon. This factor continues the basic and undeniable element in the accomplishment of the main aims and objective of establishing university / academic libraries.
It is a common practice all over the world among governments organization, institutions, establishing, and even individuals that at the end and beginning of every year of their existence policy statements, programmes and implementation is made on their finance. This is referred to as budgeting by conceptualization therefore budgeting is a continuous “present terse” that the process of budgeting is a continuous. All libraries that are well fined will managed and administered that equally have relevant resources in their collections to aid scholarship and self development educationally and intellectually and provide relevant materials for researchers for research work could be referred to as university libraries (Academic libraries) because they promote academics and provide academic support to individuals and groups of individuals.
But for the purpose of distention, university/ academic libraries are those libraries that are located or situated in an institution of higher learning such as universities, polytechnics and colleges of education and other institution of higher learning.
According to Ifidon and Okoh (2002). Academic libraries are libraries that are attached to tertiary institutions such as universities polytechnics, and colleges of education, they both categorically stated that as the year 2002 there more over 211 academic Agriculture.
According to Oduagwu (2004). Academic or university libraries are “libraries in the institution of higher learning devoted to academic activities of their parent institution” they support teaching, learning and research, furthermore, he gives example of such libraries as libraries found:. Universities, polytechnics colleges of education.
According to Anyanwu, Zander. E and Amadi .E (2006) University or academic libraries are those libraries found in institution of higher learning like universities. Agriculture, research institutions etc. in the case of organization and establishments both governmental and non-governmental their budgeting occurs at the beginning of every fiscal year that is (year of budget).
According to Onwnbiko (2004). He explains that budgeting is a strategic process of planning and determine the expected of expenditure in an organization and the allocation made in order to actualized or execute various organizational programmes, projects and activities.
According to French and Saward (2005)n they explained budgeting as a plan expressed in financial terms. They went further to say that a budget can be viewed as a summary of planed financial expenditure and accepts over a period or related to an activity. They also opines that budgeting is a list of permitted or authorized expenditure.
In view of this for a library to operate and function optimally, it has a join in the practice of budgeting university or academic libraries are expected to present their formal statement of account based on their expected income and expenditure from which to determine the allocation to be made to each of the programmes activities and department of the library budgeting in university libraries is necessary because it assist in performance evaluation
Taster communication, cooperation and coordination it serves as a statutory requirement for government establishment; it is the basis for authorization and calling for management action; budgeting compels planning and also enhances cost benefit analysis through he qualification and cost awareness of various alternate.
According to Owubiko (2004). He is of opinion that important of budgeting and fiscal management in varies is quiet a strategic tool effective programmes planning, decision making programmes implementations and problem solving in library management. This is true because the budget act as a guide line to the library manager to that he will not take up project. (capital or recurrent) that may jeopardize the budget that has been allocated to the library.
Another reason that makes budgeting indispensable is the fact that without budgeting the library manger can not argue favourable before the budgeting of the library, committee and other bodies that will determine the budget of the library, in this case the budget states the needs of the library vividly for the library committee and other relevant bodies to see, this will reduce task of conuicing the bodies that will approve the budget for the library.
Budget is regarded as the process of organizing limited rescues that are short in supply and how they are to be spent in the up coming year by the management of the organization or establishment, it is also seen as a concrete financial statement of accounts based on the expected income and expenditure of an organization that is made at a given period of time usually a year.
Above all, affection budget planning are implementative helps libraries to achieve their overall goals and standard as to place and assuage the information thirst of their clients.
Ability to control the programmes and activities undertaken by the library is another reason why budgeting is necessary because the planned figries become the standard by which the performance of the library is measured. The budget of a library equally acts as a blue prient that enable the library to actualized its goals and objectives and budget is necessary because it is library fiscal programmes. Library budget also help in the establishment of vivid and unambiguous standards and bench making of performance because the performance of the library is directly compared and measured with the budget base on the state goals and allocation the budget went achieve. Budgeting represent a logical comprehensive and forward looking financial programmes for the coordination of the activities of the various divisions of library the aim of monitoring and evaluating the process of budget implementation is to determine in good time deviation in the process of implementation as a affects the necessary corrections where and when necessary to achieve the programmes, which the budget is, set out to accomplish.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
University/ Academic library budgeting has been a major to concern for libraries to fulfill the purpose of existence and budgeting remain a citalel of knowledge it is also said that budgeting is one of major factors that enhance the growth of academic or university libraries.
In many occasions budgeting allocation to university are not recessed at when due which has perverted adequate provision of current materials needed by the staff and student in these institution as with attendant reduction in the quality of education provided.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objectives of any academic library are to support the teaching, learning and research activities of the parents institution more ever, the objectives of the study encompasses the following:
- To identify the types of budget in an academic/ university library.
- To investigate the procedure for budgeting in academic libraries
- To identify the various constraints to budgeting in academic libraries
- To ascertain the adequacy of budgeting to academic libraries
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Who is responsible for preparing budget estimates for library?
Does the adequate of the parent institution to release funds are at when due to the library minimized their ability to acquire materials for the library?
Does inadequate budget in academic/ university libraries limit the scope of services to the clienteles?
Does the inability of the libraries to carry out effective preparation of budget hinder academic libraries?
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Ordinarily the scope of this study covers the university/ Academic libraries in Nigeria as the research population but owning to the specific requirement for this research work the study particularly is paying attention on the budgeting in academic/ university libraries and also to identify the inability factors to effective budgeting the case study is based on the Federal University of Technology Owerri FUTO.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SUDY
This study is meant to extend the frontiers of human knowledge in clearing with budgeting in academic/ university libraries the study would be of great significance to the libraries and its parents institution as it supports better planning for budgeting.
It will also provide them with ready reference documents with which they with know the procedures of budgeting in academic libraries and the problems attesting budgeting
1.7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY OWERRI (FUTO)
The Federal University of Technology Owerri was established as one of the Technological universities established by the federal government of Nigeria in 1980 but did not admitted students until 1981-1982 academic year. Initially it was located in a temporary site known as take compos up to 1992 the university in mind 1993 was moned to its permanent site which is about (25) kilometers south west of the city center of Owerri, programmes of study in the university are structured under twenty degree awarding department of four school known as faculties in most traditional universities.
The four schools are the schools
School of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology (SAAT)
School of Engineering and Engineering Technology (SEET)
School of Management and Technology (SMAT) Department of Agricultural Economics and extension crop science and Technology.
The library as at December 2000 had 964 forinall titles which in tura enabled it to maintain 3982 bound (excluding news papers and magazines annual reports, year books and pamphlets but including serious news letters and buttetion) its books stock as at the above stated year 2000 was 25, 545 volumes excluding maps, Audio-Visuals materials video tapes cassesttee, transparences etc.
Acquisition of books in Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO) has the following three main sources. Over seas subscriptions
Direct subscriptions to local publishers
Gift and donations
1.8 OPERATIONAL DIFFINITION OF TERMS
BUDGETING: The word budgeting can be defined as the mechanism for the allocation of resource as an instrument for prisuing deficiency and translation of financial resources into human need.
UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES: This can be defined as libraries established, ministered and administered in university or any other tertiary institution of higher learning to meet the educational needs of the institution aimed at providing materials mainly for reading and research.